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Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Overflow at Children’s of Alabama’s Dialysis Unit

As the only pediatric dialysis unit in the state, Children’s of Alabama’s hemodialysis unit is used to being busy. But with COVID-19, “Our census has doubled,” said Children’s nephrologist Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, M.D. One reason is that transplants were paused during the height of the pandemic, leaving many children who might have been able to stop dialysis forced to continue.  

Another reason is that more infants born with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are surviving because of new equipment capable of providing them dialysis. “We have seen many patients with CKD surviving who, just a few years ago, had no chance of surviving,” Dr. Fathallah-Shaykh said. Because these infants are so small, they must come to the hospital up to five times a week for the procedure, compared to three times a week for older children. Once infants are older, the team tries to transition them to peritoneal dialysis at home; but babies may have medical contraindications that require continuing on hemodialysis. 

The impact on the staff is significant, she said. “It’s a challenge.” Dialysis charge nurse Suzanne White, RN, ECP agrees. “It takes a lot of coordination to schedule treatments for 18 patients,” she said, particularly when treatment times last up to four hours. “Our days last 10 to 12 hours,” she said. 

One reason caring for infants on dialysis calls for intense attention, said Dr. Fathallah-Shayk, is that “nurses are at the bedside the entire time monitoring these babies. Babies move a lot, and if they move, the dialysis may not work as well.” The nurses console the babies, try to distract them and sometimes even hold them while they are dialyzed.  

The team includes a child life specialist who also tries to distract the infants during dialysis; social workers who support the families, including coordinating transportation and ensuring families keep their appointments; a dietician to help with nutrition and ensure proper growth; and a pharmacist to help with medications. “We all work as a team to make this happen,” Dr. Fathallah-Shayk said, “otherwise we couldn’t do it.”  

And, said White, “we have a good support system from the administration on down,” which helps avoid burnout. The unit also added more staff in anticipation of continued growth. “We are trying to coordinate their care to the best of our ability, troubleshoot and really communicate and work with each other,” she said. 

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Welcoming the new PRISMAX Dialysis Machines to the PICU & CVICU

When you’re talking about continuous dialysis and plasmapheresis for sick kids, you want state-of-the-art technology. And that’s just what Children’s of Alabama got this year when hospital administrators approved a significant investment in the newest generation of the PRISMAX system for the Pediatric and Infant Center for Acute Nephrology (PICAN).  

The PICAN team is no stranger to these therapies; after all, the team has provided them for more 500 children for over 10,000 days since 2013 in the pediatric, neonatal and cardiac intensive care units. In 2020, the newest PRISMAX became available, and Children’s became the first hospital in the state and one of the first children’s hospitals in the country to receive the new machines, said David Askenazi, M.D., who directs the PICAN. “We are very grateful to the hospital for making this available to us and our patients,” he said. “We know that patients will benefit.” 

But first, everyone had to be trained to use the new machines. While it sounds like replacing the old with the new should be a relatively simple switch, the staff required intense education. 

“The educational part of the rollout was very important,” said acute dialysis coordinator Daryl Ingram, RN, BSN, CDN. “We had to make sure the nurses and physicians were comfortable with them before they started using them on patients.” He was pleasantly surprised at how the entire team embraced the new technology and the groundbreaking opportunity the new machines offered, he said. 

One reason could be the improvements the new system brought. For instance, nurses no longer have to manually empty 5-liter effluent bags. “It definitely saves time,” said Suzanne Gurosky, RN, ECP, the dialysis charge nurse. She also touted the battery backup in the machines, which enables patients to ambulate and even do physical therapy while still connected. Another plus is the ability of the machines to decipher the cause for an alarm—because someone moved or jostled the fluids, or because there was a real issue going on. That helps avoid disruptive alarms and alarm fatigue. 

It does this through artificial intelligence, “so it understands what’s happening better than it used to,” said Dr. Askenazi.  

The new PRISMAX also sports improved safety features, such as correcting itself for fluid removal. In addition, it provides extensive data that can be integrated into the department’s quality-improvement initiatives. “We’re excited to dig into that information and incorporate it into our practice,” said Dr. Askenazi.  

After the training and the successful integration of the new PRISMAX machines into the unit, there was one more thing the team needed to do: name them. “We like to name our machines to help the kids feel more comfortable,” said Ingram. The winners were Rosie, Max, and Astro from the old “The Jetsons” cartoon, Johnny 5 from the movie “Short Circuit,” and C3PO from, of course, “Star Wars.” 

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

COVID-19 Infection May Leave Kids with Kidney Problems

Although children were far less likely to contract COVID-19 during the early days of the pandemic, they were affected. As of July 1, 2021, the American Academy of Pediatrics and the Children’s Hospital Association reported more than 4.04 million children had been diagnosed with COVID-19 in the United States; 50,439 in Alabama.1 Since the pandemic’s start, Children’s of Alabama has treated over 500 infants and children with COVID-19 and almost 100 with multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C), the long-term repercussions of which are just now emerging. 

Many affected children, like adults, have developed acute kidney injury (AKI) during hospitalization for severe disease, particularly children who have been hospitalized with MIS-C. One study of 152 children who had either acute COVID-19 or MIS-C found that AKI occurred in 10 percent of patients. These children had longer lengths of stay in the hospital and increased risk of other medical conditions.2 Another study of 52 patients with COVID-19 found that nearly 30 percent developed AKI.3 

“The jury is out on how much of that was due to severe illness versus how much the virus plays a direct role,” said Children’s nephrologist Erica C. Bjornstad, M.D. Some reports surmise that the virus is toxic to the kidney, but, Dr. Bjornstad said, more evidence is needed. Nonetheless, it appears that children who developed AKI while hospitalized need long-term follow-up as the long-term implications are not yet fully understood, she added. 

Thus, primary care physicians caring for these children after discharge should have a “high level of suspicion” if urine tests show high levels of protein, or children demonstrate new onset hypertension,” Dr. Bjornstad said. “They should look for COVID-19 as a culprit.” In fact, she suggests urine tests for all children who had COVID-19, even if they had a mild form of the disease, although no formal guidelines have been released. If the problem doesn’t resolve, the children should be referred to a nephrologist. “We don’t have a good handle if it goes away,” she said.  

“We’re still learning how this plays out since the pandemic is still not over,” Dr. Bjornstad said. Plus, “we don’t know what the fall holds with the Delta variant and as more people move indoors,” she added. 

Dr. Bjornstad and others at Children’s are involved with a large study that is mining an international registry of COVID-19 patients (children and adults) to tease out the effects on the kidney. Ideally, she would like to obtain funding to follow former patients for a prolonged period of time, “so we can keep learning and have data to support standard guidelines,” she said. 


1 Children and COVID-19: State-Level Data Report. American Academy of Pediatrics. July 1, 2021. Available at: https://services.aap.org/en/pages/2019-novel-coronavirus-covid-19-infections/children-and-covid-19-state-level-data-report/. Accessed July 7, 2021.

2 Basalely A, Gurusinghe S, Schneider J, et al. Acute kidney injury in pediatric patients hospitalized with acute COVID-19 and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children associated with COVID-19. Clin Invest. 2021;100(1): 138-145

3 Knight, P.P., Deep, A. Save the kidneys in COVID-19. Pediatr Res (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-020-01280-x

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Becoming the Leaders in Treating Congenital Nephrotic Syndrome

It is one of the most challenging congenital kidney conditions pediatric nephrologists see. Called  congenital nephrotic syndrome (CNS), it is an extremely rare genetic disease that affects the glomerular filtration system of the kidneys, leading to tremendous loss of protein through the urine. The result is extensive edema, skin breakdown and impaired respiration.

And that’s just the beginning, said Daniel Feig, M.D., Ph.D., the Margaret M. Porter Endowed Chair in Pediatric Nephology at Children’s of Alabama and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB).“These kids are very susceptible to infections because so many immune chemicals are lost in the urine,” he said. They are also prone to blood clots because of low water volume and poor circulation, which can severely damage other organs, leading to bowel infarction and stroke. “They also become very malnourished because they can’t take in enough protein to keep up with the losses through the urine,” he said.

Symptoms usually appear by 2 months of age. “But because this is a structural problem in the kidney filters, there is no medicine that stops it,” he said. Early management involves trying to replace lost protein, “but that’s usually not enough.” Second-line management includes medications to slow kidney function, “but now we’re walking a tightrope of impaired kidney function to reduce protein losses.”

Eventually, the kidneys need to be removed so the child can receive enough nourishment. That means dialysis until they can receive a transplant.

“They’re a challenge,” he said. “But over the years, we’ve had very good success in moving down the pathway and getting them transplanted and they do well.” Because the condition is so rare, most pediatric nephrologists only see one or two patients their entire career. But word of Children’s program has spread, and today the team is treating patients from throughout the south.

“As a program we are happy to take care of these kids and share our expertise with other programs,” Feig said. One challenge has been reimbursement since health insurance may not cover out-of-state care. “We’re negotiating with other states and our own internal services to accept what we can get and then just take care of the kids, he said, adding, “A big shout out to the flexibility of the institution to allow us to do this.”

The goal is to build a center of excellence for children with CNS that demonstrates not only superior outcomes, he said, but cost savings.  

Becoming a referral center also allows greater clinical research into the disease, Feig said. Clinical trials for new therapies are difficult to conduct because there are so few children with the disease. But Children’s is slowly building a repository of biometric information and tissue for future research. “We don’t have a faculty researcher right now who is focused on CNS, but as we continue to recruit faculty that’s an untapped opportunity.” All the challenges of caring for these kids, he said, is worth it once they get a transplant. “They grow and develop and play just like all other small children. It’s a boon to these families who go through this terrible neonatal course and then get their kids back.”

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Managing COVID-19 in the Dialysis Unit

When COVID-19 hit in early March, hospitals, including Children’s of Alabama, pivoted to telehealth appointments and canceled non-urgent procedures. But that’s not an option for children who need dialysis, particularly since Children’s is the only hospital in Alabama providing pediatric dialysis.

“We were running at full staff and operating as usual,” said Suzanne White, dialysis director at Children’s renal care center. That meant seeing hemodialysis patients three times a week, home dialysis patients once a month, and implementing protocols to reduce the risk of infection to patients and staff. It also meant that even if a patient tested positive for COVID-19, they still had to come to the hospital for dialysis. “You can’t reschedule dialysis if you have COVID,” said Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, M.D., a pediatric nephrologist at Children’s and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). The task was made more challenging as with kidney transplants on hold, the dialysis center was seeing twice as many patients.

Among the changes the unit implemented:

  • Moving hemodialysis patients to peritoneal (home) dialysis whenever possible to limit visits to the hospital. This posed its own challenges, including training family members and coordinating with surgeons. “We did more peritoneal dialysis surgeries in those early months than we had done in years,” Fathallah-Shaykh said.
  • Limiting visitors in the unit. “We could accommodate eight patients at one time but we couldn’t have people gathering,” White said.” That meant families calling from the parking lot when they arrived, mask wearing, initial screening when they entered the hospital, and more advanced screening before they entered the dialysis unit. We drilled down to avoid screening fatigue,” she said.
  • Extensive education with families about COVID-19 and risk mitigation. “We had to make sure they realized the impact of this illness,” Fathallah-Shaykh said.
  • Treating COVID-positive patients in an isolation room when the unit was empty and implementing a special deep cleaning process.

“We were diligent because we knew what the illness could cause,” White said. The team was particularly concerned about the staff. Dialysis nurses require extensive training, and there are few available if one becomes sick. “If several got sick, it would be a disaster,” Fathallah-Shaykh said. In the end, just four staff and four patients tested positive, all community acquired. And, Fathallah-Shaykh stressed, “We never relaxed our standards. We added COVID to our high standard of care; we didn’t adjust our standard of care for COVID.”

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Improving Renal Transplant Outcomes

Blood pressure is one of the most basic biometrics, taken nearly every time someone visits a health care provider. It’s also one of the most important indicators of kidney problems in both native and transplanted kidneys, with studies suggesting a direct benefit of maintaining normal blood pressures on transplant outcomes.

But taking a child’s blood pressure when they’re seen in clinic provides just a snapshot in time in a non-standard environment that can be associated with high anxiety, said Michael E. Seifert, M.D., a pediatric nephrologist at Children’s of Alabama and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB). That’s why the gold standard for assessing blood pressure control is a 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitor, which the Pediatric Kidney Transplant Program strives to perform at least once a year in each eligible patient. The device takes and records blood pressure every 30-60 minutes, providing a slew of important information for clinicians. In fact, studies suggest that ambulatory blood pressures are a better predictor of long-term cardiovascular outcomes than clinic blood pressures.

It can also highlight unique blood pressure patterns in children with transplants that can’t be detected with the occasional clinic visit, such as masked hypertension, when blood pressure is normal in the clinic but high the rest of the day. Or nocturnal hypertension, in which it is only high at night or when the patient is asleep. A normal pattern for blood pressure over a 24-hour period is called nocturnal dipping, where the blood pressure is lower during the nighttime and sleep periods than when patients are awake.

However, when the staff dug into its data, they found that only about 20% to 25% of their eligible patients had had an ambulatory blood pressure monitor in the past year. So they launched a quality improvement project as part of the Improving Renal Outcomes Collaborative (IROC), a learning health system of 32 pediatric kidney transplant centers in the U.S. that share data and best practices in an effort to improve transplant outcomes. The quality improvement project was supported by a Quality Improvement Award from the Kaul Pediatric Research Institute at Children’s of Alabama.

The team already had a weekly pre-visit planning meeting in place that helped prepare for each patient’s needs during the next week of clinics. They used that opportunity to generate lists of patients who had not had the ambulatory blood pressure monitor, and systematically made it a part of the transplant anniversary visits. After just six months, placement rates jumped to over 40%, even throughout the pandemic and telehealth visits.

“We are really proud of our team for being able to improve and sustain that during some pretty challenging conditions,” Seifert said.

Even more important, in about three-fourths of the patients, the ambulatory blood pressures turned up a problem that required intervention.

“We assumed we were doing a great job with this because we’re nephrologists and we have hypertension clinics focused on proper blood pressure measurement and control,” Seifert said. “But until you start looking hard at your data, you can’t presume you’re doing as well as you think you are. We didn’t know we needed to improve until we turned the lens on it.” The project has been so successful other solid organ transplant programs at Children’s are also considering implementing it as part of their cardiovascular risk assessments.

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology, Uncategorized

Food as Medicine: Bringing Nutrition to Dialysis Patients with Food Insecurity

Children’s of Alabama Dialysis Director Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, M.D., and her team developed the Food as Medicine Program in spring 2020. Families who qualify based on income and expenses receive a monthly box of non-perishable supplies for their child, as well as support from a renal dietician in how to use them.

When it comes to kids on dialysis, food really is medicine. “We can provide state-of-the-art dialysis treatment and medications, but if they don’t follow a strict diet, they don’t do well,” said Children’s of Alabama Dialysis Director Sahar Fathallah-Shaykh, M.D. That includes a higher risk of hospital admission, infections and even mortality. Plus, it may make them ineligible for transplant because of poor healing, increased risk of infection and poor outcome.

The strict diets are very low in potassium, salt and phosphorus, with no processed or fast food. “This leaves a majority of our patients with a very difficult-to-obtain diet,” she said, particularly since half have significant food insecurity. “If we can’t meet the basic need of food, we’re not helping them that much.”

Which is why she and her team developed the Food as Medicine program in the spring of 2020. Families who qualify based on income and expenses receive a monthly box of non-perishable supplies for their child, as well as support from a renal dietician in how to use them.

“When we started we were hoping to provide them with fresh ingredients once a week, but then COVID came,” Fathallah-Shaykh said, restricting the ability of families to pick up the food on a weekly basis.

Packages include almond milk, rice, pasta, butter, animal crackers, dried herbs and seasonings, grains, cereals, oils for cooking, canned fruits and unsalted vegetables, canned tuna and chicken, and even snacks such as unsalted pretzels and Rice Krisipies Treats. Once the pandemic ends, “we hope that fresh vegetables will join the mix,” Fathallah-Shaykh said.

The unit typically has about 25 patients on dialysis and about half qualify for the program. They claim their boxes when they come for treatment.

The program has been funded, in part, by the Children’s Table fundraiser, a food event and fundraiser to raise awareness about the importance of dietary choices in the health of children and management of pediatric disease. In past years, participants enjoyed tasting plates, signature cocktails, beer, wine and dessert from some of the top chefs in the state. The event has raised more than $100,000 over the past three years to support families’ nutritional needs.

Now the team is trying to figure out how to keep the program going given the COVID-19 pandemic and the challenge it presents for in-person events.

“Without that funding,” Fathallah-Shaykh said, “these children may die if we don’t help them with their basic dietary needs. It’s really that serious.”

Inside Pediatrics, Neonatology, Nephrology

Teaching the Rest of the World How to Care for Babies and Small Children on Dialysis

A Children’s of Alabama team member attends to an infant patient simulator during a NICKS presentation in the Children’s Simulation Center. NICKS, the Neonatal and Infant Course for Kidney Support, is an education program combining specialist instruction, parent perspectives and hands-on training and support.

Children’s of Alabama provides more days of dialysis to babies than any institution in the world. Indeed, Children’s nephrologists and intensivists pioneered the use of dialysis in newborns and young children by retrofitting a machine used for adult heart failure patients. Now, with U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved dialysis machines for young children on the market, the team has been inundated with requests from other hospitals for training and information.

The result is the Neonatal and Infant Course for Kidney Support (NICKS), a one-and-a-half day educational program that combines didactic teaching from a variety of specialists, an opportunity to have a parental perspective, “hands-on” skills sessions and virtual small group case simulations.

 “As medicine advances and we continue to create innovative answers to problems, it is imperative that we offer up what we have learned in a practical, ‘hands-on’ way,” said course co-founder and acute dialysis nurse practitioner Kara Short, MSN, CRNP.

“There’s a huge need across the country and across the world for people to understand how dialysis is different for newborns and small kids,” said course co-founder David Askenazi, M.D., MsPH, FASN, who directs the Pediatric and Infant Center for Acute Nephrology (PICAN) at Children’s. “We cover the whole gamut of how to build a program with the hope that we can educate them, inspire them and provide them with tools so they can go back to their institutions and succeed in caring for small kids.”

While the course was originally designed to be held in person, COVID-19 forced it online. That hasn’t hurt its popularity. The first course, held in July, sold out in a few days and by early September there was a 20-person waiting list for the October program. Participants have come from throughout the world, including Israel, Qatar, and Canada. The interest has been so great that Short and Askenazi doubled the number of participants from 20 to 40.

“The feedback has been tremendous,” said Short. Among the comments she’s received from participants:

  • “I loved this! I was very impressed with the overall quality. Well done, I really enjoyed it!”
  • “The conference was extremely well run, efficient and very informative. I know I learned a lot.”
  • “Excellent job on your inaugural course. Would highly recommend.”
  • “Enjoyed attending with lots of good information.  Looking forward to reviewing policies to help grow our own program.”

The plan is to continue offering the virtual course every three to four months. For information, contactDavid Askenazi, M.D., MsPH, FASN at daskenazi@peds.uab.edu or Kara Short, MSN, CRNP at kara.short@childrensal.org.

Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Working to Improve Kidney Health in Developing Countries

Children’s of Alabama pediatric nephrologist Erica Christen Bjornstad, M.D., Ph.D., MPH, hopes to bring her deep knowledge of unmet nephrology needs in underdeveloped countries through the hospital’s existing relationship with the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ).

Pediatric nephrologist Erica Christen Bjornstad, M.D., Ph.D., MPH, has been working inglobal health since college. As a Peace Corps volunteer she served as a rural public health volunteer in Ecuador, and in the years after brought her public health expertise to Peru, Afghanistan, Malawi, and Tanzania. In fact, it was her work with trauma surgeons in Malawi, one of the five poorest countries in the world, during her fellowship at the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill that stoked her interest in acute kidney injury (AKI).

The condition is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the post-surgical and ICU setting and is typically diagnosed late in the disease state when severe kidney damage may have already occurred. In poor countries like Malawi, which don’t have the infrastructure required to obtain and run laboratory blood tests, the diagnosis may never come. Patients then develop end-stage renal failure but have little, if any, access to dialysis.

During her fellowship, Bjornstad brought a point-of-care urine dipstick test to Malawi to provide instant results on kidney function. Now at Children’s of Alabama, she hopes to bring that test – and her deep knowledge of the unmet nephrology needs in developing countries— to Zambia through the hospital’s existing relationship with the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia (CIDRZ). “Zambia is better off than Malawi,” she said, “but still struggles with a lot of scarcities and lab shortages.” COVID-19 has exacerbated those problems exponentially, she said. “Having a point-of-care test would be quite valuable.”

Such partnerships are what enticed her to Children’s in 2019 when she finished her fellowship. It was important, she said, that the pediatrics department at the University of Alabama Birmingham (UAB) wants to build its global health presence in a sustainable way, “not popping in and popping out.”

That means providing the education and support to work alongside a developing country improving its own medical infrastructure. The people who live in the country “are 100 times more prepared to ask the right questions and provide potential solutions that we never would have thought of,” she said, “because they are there and they know what works and what doesn’t.”

The relationships we build with these institutions, if done right, can lead to great changes in both,” she said. “But we have to be careful that it is done in a thoughtful way and that the U.S. side is not doing all the benefitting.” The CIDRZ/UAB partnership, she said, exemplifies sustainability.

But there needs to be more focus on kidney disease. “The need for nephrology is underappreciated and often overlooked in global health until there is a very dire medical emergency,” she said. So finding ways to bring the specialty to areas with few resources – as with a dipstick – is critical. “I can’t take a lab machine on the plane with me,” she said. “But if I can throw some dipsticks in my pack and diagnose AKI, that could be revolutionary.”

Cardiology, Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Children’s of Alabama Leads Consortium Dedicated to Improving Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery-Acute Kidney Injury

NEPHRON_WEB

Children’s of Alabama is one of 22 hospitals in the U.S. that is a member of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON).

Neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 52 to 64 percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery (CS) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

However, because CS-AKI rates vary widely between centers, it appears that interventions to prevent or mitigate the condition could reduce the overall rate.

Yet, noted Santiago Borasino, M.D., medical director of Children’s of Alabama’s Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU), “there are critical gaps in our understanding as to how to best define CS-AKI, who is at risk, and which patients could best benefit from interventions to prevent or  mitigate the effects of CS-AKI.”

To improve understanding of CS-AKI in this population, Borasino is one of the leaders of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON), composed of 22 children’s hospitals around the country. The consortium’s goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload and explore associations with outcomes. It involves multidisciplinary teams including clinicians from cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery.

“NEPHRON is providing multicenter data on CS-AKI for the first time,” Borasino said. “The large size of the cohort will enable us to look at details that are not possible with single-center studies.”

NEPHRON published its preliminary results in April 2019, reporting an overall incidence of 54 percent among 2,240 patients in its database.[1] In November 2019, NEPHRON presented additional results during the American Heart Association’s annual meeting, showing a threefold variation in rates among centers, from 27 percent to 86 percent, with significant variations in KDIGO stage (adult AKI definition) to identify AKI (65 percent by oligo oligo-anuria versus 35 percent by creatinine).

The results also showed that the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, but not time spent on bypass, increased the odds of CS-AKI, and that only KDIGO Stage 3 was associated with mortality. There was no impact of CS-AKI on the duration of mechanical ventilation or hospital length of stay.[2]

“NEPHRON preliminary results highlight the limitations of the KDIGO definition and the need to better understand CS-AKI as it occurs with incredible variability among centers, opening the door for future quality improvement intervention,” Borasino said.

The next step is to develop an algorithm to predict which patients are more likely to develop AKI so physicians can intervene earlier. “Early recognition and proper management of AKI are at the forefront of critical care medicine,” said Children’s of Alabama pediatric nephrologist Tennille Webb, M.D. “However, most pediatric hospitals that perform cardiac surgeries do not have protocols in place for managing severe AKI post-operatively.” Webb is now working on developing a clinical pathway to identify patients at increased risk of AKI based on specific patient characteristics. “An advantage to developing this algorithm in the CVICU is that we are able to determine the exact timing and etiology of AKI development in individuals undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” she said. “If we can proactively identify risk factors that place these individuals at increased risk for AKI, we can provide earlier intervention, such as early initiation of renal replacement therapy, in an effort to mitigate some of the known severe consequences of AKI.”

“The work that we are doing is very important because we know that AKI post-cardiac surgery leads to worse outcomes and is associated with chronic kidney disease,” Webb said. “It’s great, and yet rare in other institutions, that we have been able to develop a strong relationship between the CVICU and nephrology to work as a cohesive team early AKI detection and prevention.”


[1] Gist KM, Blinder JJ, Bailly D, Neonatal and Paediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network: design of a multi-centre retrospective cohort study. Cardiol Young. 2019;29(4):511-518.

[2] Alten J, Cooper DS, Gist KM, et al. , Abstract 13177: Epidemiology of Neonatal Cardiac Surgery Induced Acute Kidney Injury From the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Circulation. 2019;140(Suppl1).