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cardiology

Cardiology, Inside Pediatrics

Children’s of Alabama Receives Prestigious Accreditation from Children’s Cardiomyopathy Foundation

Cardiomyopathy_WEB

Livie Wheeler of Pell City, Alabama was diagnosed with dilated cardiomyopathy and underwent a successful heart transplant at Children’s of Alabama. Livie was discharged home just in time for her second birthday.

Children’s of Alabama was recently named an accredited center of care by the Children’s Cardiomyopathy Foundation (CCF), a national nonprofit committed to improving the health outcomes and quality of life for children with cardiomyopathy.

“We’re glad to be able to participate,” said F. Bennett Pearce, M.D., outgoing medical director of the Pediatric Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Program at Children’s of Alabama. “CCF promotes education and helps families connect and choose centers with experience in these kinds of patients.”

The Pediatric and Congenital Heart Center of Alabama at Children’s of Alabama is one of the largest pediatric cardiovascular programs in the Southeast. In 2018, its team of 250 dedicated professionals treated more than 230 patients with pediatric cardiomyopathy. The team includes surgeons, intensivists, cardiologists and many others, including nurses, social workers, child life specialists, genetic counselors, nutritionists, occupational and physical therapists, and chaplains.

“We have traditionally had very strong clinical abilities and success with treating a variety of these conditions,” Pearce said. “Over the 25 years that I’ve worked in the program, I feel we have been among the finest centers, but we have not been quite so active in getting the word out. That needs to change because we want to make families aware that there’s a good resource for them here.”

The CCF offers a plethora of educational and supportive programs for families, as well as a research grant program for basic, clinical, population/epidemiologic, or translational studies focused on primary pediatric cardiomyopathy.

Its accreditation program was established in 2017 to recognize excellence in diagnosing and treating pediatric cardiomyopathy and provide families with standardized center information to help them find an expert treatment center in their area. To date, 39 centers in the U.S. and Canada, including Children’s of Alabama, have been accredited.

The CCF has very strict criteria for accreditation. Centers must:

  • Manage 30 or more cardiomyopathy patients up to age 18 annually or 60 pediatric cardiomyopathy patient visits a year.
  • Have at least one pediatric cardiologist who treats patients with dilated, hypertrophic, restrictive arrhythmogenic and right ventricular or left ventricular non-compaction cardiomyopathy.
  • Be part of a teaching hospital affiliated with a medical school.
  • Offer the following:
    • Prenatal or fetal echocardiography
    • High quality imaging (echocardiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging)
    • Interventional cardiology (catheterization, endomyocardial biopsy)
    • Pediatric cardiac electrophysiology
    • Cardiac surgical services (septal myectomy, cardiac device implantation)
    • Genetic testing and counseling
    • Pediatric neurology
    • Social work
    • Child life services
  • Centers must also have at least one of the following (Children’s of Alabama meets all four):
    • A specialized clinic or program focused on pediatric cardiomyopathy or familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with a dedicated team of professionals.
    • Involvement with the North American Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Registry, Pediatric Cardiomyopathy Repository or Pediatric Heart Transplant Study Group.
    • Engagement in pediatric cardiomyopathy research.
    • Advanced heart failure management and transplantation.

“We have everything needed to offer to this group of patients,” Pearce said. “And we want to make sure that when a family confronts this difficult diagnosis, they can easily find our program and be assured that it is a good resource.”

 

Cardiology, Inside Pediatrics, Nephrology

Children’s of Alabama Leads Consortium Dedicated to Improving Outcomes in Cardiac Surgery-Acute Kidney Injury

NEPHRON_WEB

Children’s of Alabama is one of 22 hospitals in the U.S. that is a member of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON).

Neonatal acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in 52 to 64 percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery (CS) and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality.

However, because CS-AKI rates vary widely between centers, it appears that interventions to prevent or mitigate the condition could reduce the overall rate.

Yet, noted Santiago Borasino, M.D., medical director of Children’s of Alabama’s Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit (CVICU), “there are critical gaps in our understanding as to how to best define CS-AKI, who is at risk, and which patients could best benefit from interventions to prevent or  mitigate the effects of CS-AKI.”

To improve understanding of CS-AKI in this population, Borasino is one of the leaders of the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network (NEPHRON), composed of 22 children’s hospitals around the country. The consortium’s goals are to describe neonatal kidney injury epidemiology, evaluate variability in diagnosis and management, identify risk factors, investigate the impact of fluid overload and explore associations with outcomes. It involves multidisciplinary teams including clinicians from cardiac critical care, cardiology, nephrology, and cardiac surgery.

“NEPHRON is providing multicenter data on CS-AKI for the first time,” Borasino said. “The large size of the cohort will enable us to look at details that are not possible with single-center studies.”

NEPHRON published its preliminary results in April 2019, reporting an overall incidence of 54 percent among 2,240 patients in its database.[1] In November 2019, NEPHRON presented additional results during the American Heart Association’s annual meeting, showing a threefold variation in rates among centers, from 27 percent to 86 percent, with significant variations in KDIGO stage (adult AKI definition) to identify AKI (65 percent by oligo oligo-anuria versus 35 percent by creatinine).

The results also showed that the use of cardiopulmonary bypass, but not time spent on bypass, increased the odds of CS-AKI, and that only KDIGO Stage 3 was associated with mortality. There was no impact of CS-AKI on the duration of mechanical ventilation or hospital length of stay.[2]

“NEPHRON preliminary results highlight the limitations of the KDIGO definition and the need to better understand CS-AKI as it occurs with incredible variability among centers, opening the door for future quality improvement intervention,” Borasino said.

The next step is to develop an algorithm to predict which patients are more likely to develop AKI so physicians can intervene earlier. “Early recognition and proper management of AKI are at the forefront of critical care medicine,” said Children’s of Alabama pediatric nephrologist Tennille Webb, M.D. “However, most pediatric hospitals that perform cardiac surgeries do not have protocols in place for managing severe AKI post-operatively.” Webb is now working on developing a clinical pathway to identify patients at increased risk of AKI based on specific patient characteristics. “An advantage to developing this algorithm in the CVICU is that we are able to determine the exact timing and etiology of AKI development in individuals undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass,” she said. “If we can proactively identify risk factors that place these individuals at increased risk for AKI, we can provide earlier intervention, such as early initiation of renal replacement therapy, in an effort to mitigate some of the known severe consequences of AKI.”

“The work that we are doing is very important because we know that AKI post-cardiac surgery leads to worse outcomes and is associated with chronic kidney disease,” Webb said. “It’s great, and yet rare in other institutions, that we have been able to develop a strong relationship between the CVICU and nephrology to work as a cohesive team early AKI detection and prevention.”


[1] Gist KM, Blinder JJ, Bailly D, Neonatal and Paediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network: design of a multi-centre retrospective cohort study. Cardiol Young. 2019;29(4):511-518.

[2] Alten J, Cooper DS, Gist KM, et al. , Abstract 13177: Epidemiology of Neonatal Cardiac Surgery Induced Acute Kidney Injury From the Neonatal and Pediatric Heart and Renal Outcomes Network. Circulation. 2019;140(Suppl1).

 

Cardiology, Inside Pediatrics

Discharged with an iPad: Children’s of Alabama Uses Telehealth to Monitor Complex Heart Patients at Home

Telehealth_WEB

Children’s of Alabama has partnered with Locus Health to provide a special iPad app that connects parents with nurse practitioners who treat infants who have undergone complex surgery.

Babies born with a single ventricle must undergo three major open-heart surgeries by the time they are toddlers. The first and most complex surgery occurs at 1 to 2 weeks; the second between 4 and 12 months. The months spent at home between the two can be overwhelming for parents.

Now families served at Children’s of Alabama have a new tool to help them cope – an iPad containing a special app from Locus Health, a Charlottesville, Virginia-based company that develops software to ease the discharge process and transition from hospital to home. The app forms the core of a remote monitoring system that connects parents with the nurse practitioners at Children’s of Alabama who care for their infants.

“These parents have been through a tremendous amount of stress,” said Katelyn Staley, discharge coordinator for Cardiovascular Services at Children’s of Alabama. “Not only do they have a newborn, but the baby requires major open-heart surgery in that first week or two of life. Then they are discharged home; it’s an overwhelming process,” she said.

“The Locus platform was designed specifically for the pediatric patient population with congenital heart disease,” said Sarah Blair, RN, MSN, CRNP, of Children’s of Alabama’s Hearts at Home Program. More than a dozen of the country’s leading children’s hospitals now use the system, which studies find can reduce post-discharge emergency room visits as much as 40 percent and the total hospital days by up to two weeks.

Children’s of Alabama had been using another electronic program, but it was cumbersome, not user-friendly and difficult to extract data from. Before that, all data was collected the old-fashioned way – with paper and pencil.

With the Locus app, parents enter their child’s daily weight, oxygen saturation, heart rate, number of diapers, Synagis dosing and nutritional intake, noting if there is any vomiting or diarrhea. They can also upload photos and videos.

Timely information is critical. For instance, weight gain is vitally important because if the baby stops gaining or loses weight the team needs to intervene quickly before complications occur. In addition, values can be individualized for each infant depending on their medical status. “If a parent enters an out-of-range value it creates a red flag and prompts the caregiver to call the hospital immediately,” Staley said.

The data automatically populates the congenital heart clinical dashboard, which nurse practitioners and clinical nutritionists monitor. Parents can also see current and past data and even track trends across time, Blair said. Data can also be downloaded into a PDF and emailed to physicians.

The remote monitoring is also beneficial since many patients live hours from the hospital and may be followed by a local cardiologist. “Now we can share the information with the cardiologist where they live,” she said.

“It definitely keeps us in constant communication with the families,” Blair said. “We still call and talk to them, but it relieves some of that pressure.”

“Sending families home with the reassurance that nurse practitioners are logging into the system on a daily basis and that they have 24/7 access to a provider is very reassuring,” Staley said.

Cardiology, Uncategorized

Understanding Xenotransplantation’s Potential to Save Babies

The issue is simple: there are simply not enough hearts for all the children who need them. So 17% of all children who need a heart transplant die while waiting; this translates to 20% to 25% of infants.[1]

The University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and Children’s of Alabama aim to change those dismal statistics with one of the most revolutionary approaches since the first heart was transplanted from one human to another in 1967 – xenotransplantation.  

Thanks to a $19.5 million grant from biotechnology magnate United Therapeutics Corporation, UAB and Children’s have launched one of the top programs in the world dedicated to developing genetically modified solid organs from pig models for transplantation.

The idea isn’t new. Pig tissue has been used to replace heart valves for years, said cardiothoracic surgeon David Cleveland, M.D., MBA, who leads the program at Children’s. The greatest challenge with solid organs, he said, is overcoming immunological and physiological barriers.

If they can do that, “We believe that there’s huge potential to improve the lives of children,” he said.  

Supporting Evidence

Earlier this year, Cleveland presented preliminary results from a study showing little reactivity in an infant’s blood to cells from a triple-knockout (TKO) pig. The pig had been genetically modified to delete the three major antigens that react with natural human anti-pig antibodies. Even those human cells that did react demonstrated a very mild reaction.

“We found that very promising,” Cleveland said.

Another area of interest is producing immune tolerance by transplanting porcine thymus tissue to “re-educate” the immune system to accept the pig heart, said cardiac intensivist Leslie Rhodes, M.D. The idea comes from the fact that children can develop an immune system via a human thymus transplant. “We wonder if we could we train their immune system to be tolerant to the pig thymus transplant,” she said.

Infants are the ideal starting place, Cleveland said, not only because they have the highest wait list mortality of any other demographic waiting for a solid organ transplant, but because their immune systems are still naïve. Indeed, they do not develop antibodies to pig glycans during at least the first three months of life, Cleveland and his team wrote in a recent journal article, providing a “window of opportunity” for the transplant.[2]

The next step is a transplant in a non-human primate. “The FDA won’t even consider it until we can prove consistent survival in a non-human primate,” Rhodes said. They hope to perform their first transplant later this year.

Societal Concerns Addressed

The team is also aware of the societal issues around xenotransplantation. To address that, they surveyed the families of patients on the transplant list and the nurses and physicians who will care for these children.

”I was surprised by how positive they were,” Cleveland said. “I thought there would be more pushback than there was.” Still, he said, “I think there has to be major education,” once xenotransplantation becomes a reality. “The idea of replacing a heart with a pig heart will take some people a little time to get over.”

He’s confident it will happen, though. “UAB is going to be one of the centers in the world with the potential to make this happen,” he said. “We have children living in our ICU because there’s not enough cardiac function; they are having their birthdays here. It totally changes entire families to have a child in the hospital forever. There has to be another way.“


[1] Dipchand AI. Current state of pediatric cardiac transplantation. Ann Cardiothorac Surg. 2018;7(1):31–55. doi:10.21037/acs.2018.01.07

[2] Cleveland D, Adam Banks C, Hara H, Carlo WF, Mauchley DC, Cooper DKC. The Case for Cardiac Xenotransplantation in Neonates: Is Now the Time to Reconsider Xenotransplantation for Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome? Pediatr Cardiol. 2019;40(2):437-444.

Cutting-Edge Research

Learn more about various research areas at the University of Alabama at Birmingham.

Cardiology

Children’s of Alabama CVICU Embraces Quality Improvement Projects

What if you could proactively identify patients who might go into cardiac arrest and intervene before the unthinkable happens? If you do what Children’s of Alabama did, you end up with fewer children having arrests and improved response times because of faster medication administration when an arrest does occur.

That’s all thanks to a multi-institutional quality improvement project — Cardiac Arrest Prevention (CAP) — centered around a resuscitation action plan, which focuses on rescuing patients before they arrest.

The project, led by cardiovascular intensive care unit (CVICU) Medical Director Santiago Borasino, M.D., and cardiac intensivist Hayden Zaccagni, M.D., is part of the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium (PC⁴), made up of 52 of the country’s top children’s hospitals. The consortium maintains a focused CVICU registry designed to share real-time data and outcomes between institutions and participates in quality improvement projects to improve outcomes.

The CAP project is just one of the data-driven, collaborative learning initiatives the group has implemented.

Comprehensive Effort

“CAP is a joint effort with bedside nurses, respiratory therapists, administrative nursing staff and trainees, whether fellows or advanced practice practitioners, to not just identify at-risk patients but have a common mind-set and goals to prevent arrests,” Zaccagni said.

Once a patient meets certain criteria putting them at risk for cardiac arrest, the attending intensivist completes a paper report that remains bedside. Clinicians then round separately on these patients and, if warranted, give the bedside nurse the ability to start the treatment plan without waiting for separate orders. Resuscitation medications are kept at the bedside for immediate use if the patient demonstrates any danger signs. “The goal is to expedite interventions to prevent the arrest from occurring,” Zaccagni said.

Borasino, in collaboration with two former Children’s intensivists, Kimberly Jackson, M.D., and Jeffrey Alten, M.D., started the original resuscitation program. “Dr. Alten was our medical director and section chief until 2017 and he was instrumental in starting this project and then taking it to the national stage,” Borasino said, while Jackson coordinated the local effort when it began in 2013. Alten, now at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, is still the coordinating head of the national initiative, while. Jackson has moved to Duke University Medical Center in Durham, North Carolina, where she leads its initiative.

The official PC4 initiative began in October 2018, but Children’s had something similar in place for three years, Zaccagni said. However, because the PC4 initiative includes more than 10,000 patients, there is more data available on best practices. So, for instance, Children’s adjusted the bedside rescue medications so they are easier to deliver.

Although the new initiative had only been in place eight months when this article was written, “anecdotally, I’d say we’ve reduced the number of cardiac arrests,” Borasino said.

More Quality Improvement Initiatives

Two other quality improvement projects are also demonstrating results:

Star Track. Geared towards less-complicated patients who have cardiac surgery, this initiative involves standardizing patient care to remove unnecessary equipment sooner. This improves patient comfort and enables them to transfer soon out of the CVICU. “The patient comfort is our main goal,” Borasino said. “Patients undergoing these types of surgeries are older and don’t require the level of invasive monitoring our unit provides.”

A secondary benefit is patient flow. “We are a busy unit, so this allows us to care for more patients as needed,” Borasino said. In addition, removing devices reduces the risk of infection from invasive equipment like Foley catheters and central lines.   

Alarm reduction. This initiative is geared toward reducing the number of alarms in the unit in an effort to reduce “alarm fatigue” while improving the overall atmosphere. Alarm parameters are reviewed every 12 hours to ensure they are still accurate given the continually changing status of the patient. To date, the number of alarms has dropped by a third. “We’re trying to diminish that even more,” Borasino said. “We’d like all alarms to be meaningful alarms.”

Quality Improvement

Learn more about the cardiovascular intensive care unit at Children’s Alabama.

Cardiology

Taking a Multidisciplinary Approach to Congenital Heart Defects Months Before Birth

Congenital heart defects are the most common type of birth defect in the United States, affecting nearly 1% (about 40,000) births per year. Most are diagnosed early in pregnancy, leaving parents months to obsessively worry over their baby’s fate. But at the UAB Fetal Cardiac Diagnosis and Care Clinic, a collaboration between the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Children’s of Alabama, families can learn early on in their pregnancy what to expect prenatally, during delivery and in the postnatal period from a team of specialized physicians focused on their baby’s specific needs.

“Families get hit with the news that their baby has heart disease and it’s like a body blow,” said Children’s cardiologist Robb Romp, M.D. “We can demystify some of the scariness,” he said.

Clinic participants include pediatric cardiologists, cardiothoracic surgeons, maternal-fetal medicine specialists and a geneticist. “It is one of the quintessential multidisciplinary programs we run,” Romp said. “The goal is to recognize what the problems are prenatally and then ensure all the necessary resources are in place to care for the baby after birth.”

The half-day clinic meets monthly with between three to five families, about 50 a year, whose babies are known to have complex congenital heart disease. Patients come from throughout Alabama and surrounding states.

The clinic “helps families understand how many different providers are assisting in the care of their baby and that we are all working collaboratively,” Romp said. It also provides a very real perspective on how the team makes decisions, because the clinicians talk through the case with the family, he said. For instance, the issues the obstetrician focuses on may be different from those of the cardiologist. “The needs of both patients, mother and baby, need to be balanced to ensure both do well during and after the pregnancy,” he said.

The team’s nurse practitioner, Laura Brasseale, coordinates all follow-up meetings and ensures the family tours areas of the hospital where their baby may require care.

Brian Casey, M.D., who directs the Division of Maternal-Fetal Medicine at UAB,spent 23 years at the University of Texas Southwestern in Dallas before moving to UAB in 2018. “After my arrival here, I was immediately impressed with this scheduled monthly meeting between the pediatric cardiologists and the Maternal-Fetal Medicine group at UAB,” he said. “This extraordinary collaboration allows for early discussions of prenatal treatment and delivery planning in order to optimize the baby’s outcome and  provides state-of-the-art care at a very high level for our patients.”

Fetal Diagnosis and Care

Learn more about the UAB Fetal Diagnosis and Care Clinic, a collaboration between the University of Alabama at Birmingham and Children’s of Alabama.

Cardiology

Kylin’s Brave Heart

kylin_heart

Hearts are full at Children’s of Alabama because Kylin Harris’ heart is well. Inside a hospital conference room in June 2018, the banner was hung, the tablecloth was draped and the cake was cut in celebration of Kylin, the first-ever patient at Children’s to be successfully weaned from a pediatric ventricular assist device without the need for a heart transplant. The 1-year-old guest of honor arrived in what is by far Children’s most popular mode of transportation – a red Radio Flyer wagon – a stark contrast from her arrival just four months prior.

Kylin was flown by helicopter to Children’s after her mother, Keianna Harris, came home to find her daughter uncharacteristically lethargic. Kylin hadn’t slept well the past two nights and a startled Harris, a nurse by trade, took Kylin to their local emergency room. While en route to the hospital, Kylin had a seizure and fell limp.  Doctors at Children’s intubated Kylin and later diagnosed her with advanced heart failure due to myocarditis. Kylin experienced cardiac arrest while being transferred to the Cardiovascular Intensive Care Unit. Doctors performed chest compressions and CPR, and placed her on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy (ECMO), which pumps and oxygenates a patient’s blood outside the body allowing the heart and lungs to rest for a limited time.

The Pediatric Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Team at Children’s discussed every detail of Kylin’s care with Harris. It was apparent ECMO would not provide long enough support for Kylin’s heart. First, doctors would convert Kylin from ECMO to the Berlin Heart® EXCOR, a long-term cardiac assist device that functions as a heart outside of the body. The Berlin Heart acts as a bridge to transplantation for children in heart failure, allowing the patient mobility and freedom to rehabilitate in preparation for transplant surgery. Available in several sizes, the Berlin Heart is not totally implanted inside the body. Doctors insert cannulas, or flexible tubes, in the heart and they extend through the skin and connect to a small pump located outside the body. That pump, along with its computerized drive unit, maintains blood flow.

“It was a lot to take in … It all happened so fast,” Harris said. “My biggest fear was losing her. It was scary not knowing whether she was going to make it through.”

The Pediatric Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Team, a partnership between Children’s and the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB),  is among the first in the U.S. to use the Berlin Heart in children and reported the first successful Berlin Heart bridge to transplantation for a child with a single ventricle. Children’s and UAB first used the device in 2005, when UAB was home to the pediatric cardiac unit. The following year, the team weaned its first patient, now an adult, from the Berlin Heart without the need for transplant at UAB. In 2012, with the opening of the Benjamin Russell Hospital for Children and Bruno Pediatric Cardiac Unit, all pediatric cardiac care to relocated to Children’s.

The team’s success with the Berlin Heart led to a landmark study published in the New England Journal of Medicine in 2012 featuring two team members as co-authors – pediatric cardiologist F. Bennett Pearce, M.D., and David Naftel, Ph.D, professor in the UAB Division of Cardiothoracic Surgery. The research team, known as the Berlin Heart Study Investigators, evaluated ECMO and the Berlin Heart to see which offered children the best chance of survival until they could receive a new heart or recover enough heart function not to need a support device or transplant.

Pearce says 46 percent of children diagnosed with heart failure die or receive a heart transplant within the first five years after diagnosis. A heart transplant is a child’s best hope of survival, with the survival rate after a transplant estimated at 83 percent at three years. However, with limited donor hearts available, the wait is often long.

“Children on waiting lists for heart transplants experience the highest waiting-list mortality for any age or organ,” Pearce says. “This research demonstrates that the Berlin Heart, available in variety of appropriate sizes for children, has the potential to effectively and safely bridge children from diagnosis to transplantation or in some cases recovery, for long periods of time.”

Before the study and subsequent approval of the Berlin Heart by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, ECMO was the mainstay for mechanical circulatory support as a bridge to transplantation. The effective period of support with ECMO is typically limited to 10 to 20 days before serious complications such as bleeding and major organ system failure, often prohibiting transplantation. The short duration of support afforded by ECMO is often inadequate, the study reads, citing only 40 to 60 percent of children requiring support with ECMO survive long enough to undergo heart transplantation. Researchers found that the longest duration of support for the younger, smaller children was 174 days for the Berlin Heart and 21 days for ECMO therapy. The longest duration of support for the larger, older children was 192 days for the Berlin Heart and 28 days for ECMO.

“The Berlin Heart provided better survival over longer support periods than ECMO therapy,” Pearce says. “These longer support periods on the Berlin Heart allow for patient rehabilitation, improved nutrition and weaning from ventilator support to use of the patient’s own respiratory system so that the children may be better candidates for successful transplantation or so that long-term cardiac recovery can occur.”

Kylin lived with the Berlin Heart for 83 days. In that time span, doctors noted signs of cardiac recovery and further testing gave doctors the green light to again operate on Kylin to remove the device. Pearce credits fellow pediatric cardiologist Waldemar F. Carlo, M.D., who was the first to see hints of Kylin’s recovery.

“He was the strongest advocate for us to explore whether her degree of recovery was enough for her to be off the device,” said Pearce, adding Kylin’s echocardiogram and catheterization data yielded positive results. “We followed the protocol of the Berlin Heart Clinical Support Team. We were in daily communication with the team from the moment we considered weaning her off.

“She has continued to show us normal cardiac function. We removed her from the transplant list because she had improved so much. We’re following her closely, but our hope is she won’t require a heart transplant,” Pearce said.

And much to Harris’ delight and relief, her baby girl did make it through. Kylin is her old self again, she says, smiling from ear to ear.

“When Kylin was in the hospital, she wouldn’t smile. She felt miserable,” Harris said. “But now her personality is back. She’s been grinning ever since we left.”

Joseph S. Bruno Pediatric Heart Center
Learn more about the services provided by the Bruno Pediatric Heart Center at Children’s of Alabama at https://www.childrensal.org/heart-inpatient-services.